Peanut butter is thought of as a relatively recent “invention”. But nuts have long been a part of the human diet. Ancient cultures that extensively consumed various types of nuts, quite conceivably already had different methods of preparation for them. Grinding the nuts into a paste is likely one of them.
Raw nut butters are nutritionally similar to the nuts from which they’re made. What simply happens is that a solid and crunchy food is thoroughly ground into something soft and spreadable. You still get the same amount of proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients that were present in the raw nuts. The fact that they’re uncooked however can pose some health risks that need to be considered.